Indigenous People Have Been Traveling Without Borders for Thousand of Years
by Henry Guzman Villalobos

The Indigenous Peoples of present-day Mexico, United States, and Canada, have been traveling across their ancestral lands without any borders for thousands of years.

Mexico, United States, and Canada, are in the present-day North American Continent, the Indigenous Peoples (Native Americans) from Mexico, United States, and Canada, have the right to freely pass and repass over the International borders separating (North America) Mexico, United States, and Canada.

The Jay Treaty of November 19, 1794, between the United States and Canada, in Article 3, of this treaty, it states "It is agreed that it shall at all Times be free to His Majesty's Subjects, and to the Citizens of the United States, and also to the Indians dwelling on either side of the said Boundary line freely to pass and repass"; also in Article 28 of this treaty, it states "It is agreed that the first Ten Articles of this treaty shall be permanent." (Jay's Treaty is named after the first United States Supreme Court Chief Justice John Jay.)

"The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Feb. 2, 1848, Guaranteed United States citizenship to Mexican citizens in California and recognition of their land titles. Indigenous Californians were citizens in Mexican and Spanish Law. Their absolute title to the State of California was clear... and acknowledged by the United States. In this statement..." (Source: Treaty Material prepared by Russ Imrie, Costanoan-Ohlone Website)

On March 10, 1848, the U.S. Senate ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and at that time, it deleted Article X guaranteeing the protection of Indigenous Mexican land grants.

"ARTICLE X, All grants of land made by the Mexican government or by the competent authorities, in territories previously appertaining to Mexico, and remaining for the future within the limits of the United States, shall be respected as valid." (Source: Center For Land Grant Studies)

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848, between the United States and Indigenous Mexico, a copy of the 1847 Disturnell Map, was added to this treaty; by signing this treaty based on this historical map, the United States recognized the present-day State of Utah, as the original homeland of the Aztecs, and are bound by International Law to acknowledge that the Aztecs are the original inhabitants of this land. (Source: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School) (Source: 1847 Disturnell Map, David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates)

The "Texas Band of Kickapoo Act," approved on January 8,1983, Public Law 97-429 [H.R.4496] entitled the Kickapoo Nation, to freely pass and repass over the International border separating Indigenous Mexico and the United States.

The "California Assembly Joint Resolution Bill Number 60" of September 16, 2002, allowed the Baja Kumeyaay Nation to freely pass and repass over the International border separating (North America) Native Mexico and the United States.

For many years, the Indigenous Nations from Mexico crossed easily between Native Mexico and the United States, because the Indigenous Peoples were known to U.S. border agents and secured inexpensive border crossing cards.

Today, there are over 62 Indigenous Nations in Native Mexico, and the Ancient Homeland of the Aztecs is the present-day Great Salt Lake, Utah.

As we are aware, the Indigenous Nations from Canada are allowed to freely pass and repass over the International border separating (North America) Canada and the United States.

Today, it is a great injustice not to allow the Indigenous Nations from Mexico to freely pass and repass over the International border separating (North America) Mexico and the United States.

Henry Guzman Villalobos (Aztec-Yaqui) is President and CEO, Aztecs of North America, Inc., A California Non-Profit Corporation, P.O. Box 325, Hayward, California 94543-0325, USA., Voice:(510) 582-3880. E-Mail

News From Indian Country November 13, 2006