**1. INTRODUCTION**

Long regarded as non-astronomical by historians
of science, Hindu cosmological time cycles are shown here to be the most
accurate solar calendar known, the progenitor of the sexagesimal number
system and the 360 + 5 day calendars of antiquity, and one of the greatest
achievements of humanity.

Hindu cosmological time cycles, as well as common units of measuring time
and angles, are generated from the concept that the Sun has three distinct mean
motions which work together like the hour, minute and second hands of a clock.
The exact sidereal solar year of 365.2563795 mean solar days, constant of
precession of 50".4 and week of precessional years of 180,000 sidereal solar
years used in the construction of the cycles may be inferred from their
infrastructure.
With the astronomical quantities known, the kaliyuga epoch of February 18, 3102
B.C. of the Julian calendar establishes the summer solstice as the initial
tropical point of the cycles, 147108 B.C. as the beginning of the current week
of precessional years and closely approximates the fixed initial point of the sidereal sphere
given in the *SuryaSiddhanta* commentary.

Not only does the astronomical basis of the cycles conclusively prove the non-Greek origin and ancient age of Indian astronomical science, but the extremely high level of astronomical knowledge used and method of construction of the cycles cannot be placed in any known historical frame of reference. The implications of these findings for mankind are, therefore, very far-reaching.

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